ou est allah hadith

Et il y a en ce jour une heure, où pas un seul serviteur musulman en prière ne demanderait une chose à Allah, sans qu’Il la lui donne”. Nous utilisons des cookies pour vous garantir la meilleure expérience sur notre site web. 57:51. L'Imam Malik concernant "Ou est Allâh?" Hadith Al Qudsi n°2: Insulter le temps, revient à insulter Allah. [33] Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh (or madh'hab) — with establishing the principle of the use of the hadith of Muhammad for Islamic law, and emphasizing the inferiority of hadith of anyone else, saying hadiths, "from other persons are of no account in the face of a tradition from the Prophet, whether they confirm or contradict it; With regard to clarity, Imam Ali al-Ridha has narrated that "In our Hadith there are Mutashabih (unclear ones) like those in al-Quran as well as Muhkam (clear ones) like those of al-Quran. La question Où est Allâh fait-elle partie de la ‘Aqida. As for Quranic exegesis, then the preferred manner of explaining the speech of God is by means of what has been accepted as a statement of Muhammad. Hadith also refers to the speech of a person.. … The reason for the unlawfulness of pictorial representation is that it imitates the creative act of Allah Most High, as is indicated by the hadith related by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim that A’isha (Allah be well pleased with her) said, “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) returned from a trip, and I had draped a cloth with picture on it over a small closet. J’aimerai maintenant que nous analysions un Hadith dans lequel il est rapporté que le Prophète Muhammad (salallahou ‘alayhi wassalam) demanda à une esclave/servante « Ou est Allâh », ce à quoi il est dit qu’elle répondit : « Dans le ciel (fi as-sama) », après quoi le Prophète répondit : « Libérez la, car c’est une croyante ». I) Al-Lalaka i (d.414H) : Sharh Usul I'tiqad Ahl Sunna (p396, Tahqiq Ahmad Hamdan) (660) Abdullah ibn Abbas (qu Allah l agrée) a dit : « En vérité Allah était au-dessus de Son Trône avant qu'Il n'ait tout créé, puis Il a créé la création et a décrété ce qui devait exister jusqu'au Jour du Jugement. of Muhammad, but also those of his companions. Au nom d’Allah, le Tout Miséricordieux, le Très Miséricordieux. Multipliez donc les invocations à … Definition. 6 ) Dans le recueil de hadith de l'imam Mouslim, il est rapporté que le compagnon Mou'âwiya Ibn Al-Hakam dit au Prophète, paix et bénédiction d'Allah sur lui, au sujet d'une femme esclave : It will shine among the people gathered on the plain of resurrection. the individual narrators involved in its transmission. [57]. ", "The Major Difference Between the Shi'a and the Sunni", "THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HADITH AND SUNNA", Ibn Warraq, "Studies on Muhammad and the Rise of Islam", 2000, "The Hadith: "My Companions Are Like The Stars, "If the Qur'an is perfect and complete and contains everything needed for the laws and regulations of sharee'ah, what need is there for the Sunnah? Il est établi de manière authentique que la question « Où est Allâh » ne fait pas partie de la Croyance (‘Aqida) de notre Crédo ou de notre Foi. In Introduction to Hadith by Abd al-Hadi al-Fadli, Kitab Ali is referred to as "the first hadith book of the Ahl al-Bayt (family of Muhammad) to be written on the authority of the Prophet". Hadith qudsi sur l'injustice. Vérifiez votre boîte de réception ou vos indésirables afin de confirmer votre abonnement. Si on regarde dans le 1er volume de l’exégèse (tafsir) de l’Imam ibn Kathir (rahimahuLlâh), sous le verset « Si Mes serviteurs t’interrogent à Mon sujet » [4], l’Imam mentionne plusieurs narrations. [3] Tafsir Ismaïl ibn Kathir, pages 113 & 114, édition française, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah (Beyrouth – Liban), [4] Qour’an, s2/v186 by islam-verite.com abbé Guy Pages. « Allah » ou « Ellah » est un mot sémitique. "science of people", also "science of Asma Al-Rijal or ‘ilm al-jarḥ wa al-taʻdīl ("science of discrediting and accrediting"), in which details about the transmitter are scrutinized. Explication du hadith : Certes, Allah ne vous récompense pas et ne vous rétribue pas en fonction de votre corps et votre apparence, ce n’est pas grâce à cela que vous vous rapprochez de Lui. Le Dhikr ne concerne qu’Allâh, tandis que le Fikr concerne la création. Où est Allah ? © Sunnisme.com 2008-2020 - Tous droits réservés. La question « Où est Allâh » fait-elle partie de la ‘Aqida ? Other "traditions" of Islam related to hadith including: Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad that is used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars. Allah est comme Il veut selon le mode qu'Il Lui convient, Sa science englobe tout et Il n'a pas d'égale ni de semblable. The major points of intra-Muslim criticism of the hadith literature is based in questions regarding its authenticity. [23] However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Topics islam Language French. "But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad (SAW)) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission" [an-Nisa’ 4:65]. [26], In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth (حديث  IPA: [ħæˈdiːθ]) means "report", "account", or "narrative". » - Encyclopédie des paroles prohétiques traduites Hadith: Au Jour de la Résurrection, Allah - Exalté soit-Il - demandera : Où sont ceux qui s’aimaient en Ma Majesté ? Hadith Kisa Tradition of the Cloak as narrated by Fatima (sa): ... chain of authority that Jabir ibn `Abdullah al-Ansari said that he heard Fatimah the daughter of the Holy Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his Household,(Also in Mafatih al-Jinan. BismiLlâhi ar-Rahmani ar-Rahim [1], La question « Où est Allâh » fait-elle partie de la ‘Aqida (Croyance Musulmane) ? The hadith had a profound and controversial influence on tafsir (commentaries of the Quran). [68], According to British historian of Arab world Alfred Guillaume, it is "certain" that "several small collections" of hadith were "assembled in Umayyad times. Surah Al-Fatihah(الفاتحة) 1:1 In the Name of Allah—the Most Compassionate, Most Merciful. To fight these forgeries, the elaborate science of hadith studies was devised[93] to authenticate hadith known as ilm al jarh or ilm al dirayah[94], Hadith studies use a number of methods of evaluation developed by early Muslim scholars in determining the veracity of reports attributed to Muhammad. Ou est Allah. [30], Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports (sometimes just a line or two) recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Muhammad himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters". Having been evaluated, hadith may be categorized. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is relatively few, hadith give direction on everything from details of religious obligations (such as Ghusl or Wudu, ablutions[7] for salat prayer), to the correct forms of salutations[8] and the importance of benevolence to slaves. Lire à ce sujet notre article : La question « Où est Allâh » fait-elle partie de la ‘Aqida ? Sheikh Muqbil ⇒ Explication du hadith : « Si ce bas monde valait pour Allah l’équivalent d’une aile de moustique, alors il ne consentirait même pas à accorder ne serait-ce une gorgée d’eau au mécréant » Sheikh Al ‘Uthaymin The saying "Allah existed eternally without a place, and He is now as He ever was" is related - without chain - from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib -- Allah be well-pleased with him. [3] Hadith also refers to the speech of a person. .[62]. Then all those whomever he had taught in the worldly life anything of goodness, or had opened from his heart a lock of ignorance or had removed his doubts will come out. [Note 3] Quranists, on the contrary, hold that if the Quran is silent on some matter, it is because God did not hold its detail to be of consequence; and that some hadith contradict the Quran, evidence that some hadith are a source of corruption and not a complement to the Quran. This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 13:42. [11] Therefore, Muslims usually maintain that hadiths are a necessary requirement for the true and proper practice of Islam, as it gives Muslims the nuanced details of Islamic practice and belief in areas where the Quran is silent. Cliquez ici pour lire une série de hadiths en français sur sur la science. Ḥadīth (/ˈhædɪθ/[1] or /hɑːˈdiːθ/;[2] Arabic: حديث‎ ʾḥadīṯ Arabic pronunciation: [ħadiːθ], pl. Les grands savants ont dit qu’Allâh mentionne deux choses importantes dans ce verset. Que faites vous ? Et Il est le Très-Haut, le Très-Grand. Toutes les preuves détaillées existent et peuvent facilement être trouvées. ^ Collected in the Musnad of Ahmad (10\15-6\ 6510 and also nos. [47][48] [19][22] The isnad was an effort to document that a hadith had actually come from Muhammad, and Muslim scholars from the eighth century until today have never ceased repeating the mantra "The isnad is part of the religion — if not for the isnad, whoever wanted could say whatever they wanted. ... A 'Sunna' is a practice which has been passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the hadith are reports collected by later compilers often centuries removed from the source. Qu’ils répondent donc à Mon appel et qu’ils aient foi en Moi, afin qu’ils soient guidés vers la Voie du salut. (It is) a month of blessing, in which Allah covers you with blessing, for He sends down Mercy, decreases sins and answers prayers. Le Prophète ﷺ a dit: “Le meilleur jour où le soleil s’est levé est le vendredi. Shaykh Jalaal ad-Deen as-Suyooti (may Allah have mercy on him) said: I found written in the handwriting of Shaykh Shams ad-Deen ibn al-Qammaah, in a collection of his, a report narrated from Abu’l-‘Abbaas al-Mustaghfiri, who said: I went to Egypt, intending to seek knowledge from Imam Abu Haamid al-Misri, and I asked him about the hadith of Khaalid ibn al-Waleed. Il est établi de manière authentique que la question « Où est Allâh » ne fait pas partie de la Croyance (‘Aqida) de notre Crédo ou de notre Foi. – L’Istawa expliquée par Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali Thanawi Above every right thing, there is a light. Non ! Pourquoi ceux qui veulent absolument placer Allâh dans une direction ou sur un Trône n’ont-ils pas suivi la méthodologie des Salafs as-Salih (tafwid) qui gardaient le silence et laissaient le sens à Allâh ? Another source (Joseph A. Islam) distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the 'Hadith' is an oral communication that is allegedly derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the 'Sunna' (quite literally: mode of life, behaviour or example) signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people. La meilleure des choses à faire, c’est de répondre avec la réponse donnée par le Qour’an lui-même ! [65], Traditions of the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down mostly orally for more than a hundred years after Muhammad's death in AD 632. Le Mahdi vivra sept ou huit ans" (Voir Moustadrak de Hakim n° 4/557-558. Etymology. Quand il a trouvé que c’était mouillé, il a demandé à son propriétaire, « qu’est-ce que c’est ? Bonjour , dans certains moments de votre vie quand vous etes au plus bas que vous souffrez et que personne n'est la pour vous et que vous invoquez Allah mais vous ne voyez pas de signes de lui . Hadith: Les grands péchés sont : le fait d'associer qui ou quoi que ce soit à Allah, la désobéissance aux parents, le meurtre et le faux serment. Toutes les preuves détaillées existent et peuvent facilement être trouvées. Qu’Allâh nous accorde la bonne compréhension de Sa religion. Où est Allah ? In addition, Bukhari and Muslim in particular, claimed that they were collecting only the soundest of sound hadiths. Because some hadith include questionable and even contradictory statements, the authentication of hadith became a major field of study in Islam. Different branches of Islam refer to different collections of hadith, though the same incident may be found in hadith in different collections: In general, the difference between Shi'a and Sunni collections is that Shia give preference to hadiths credited to Muhammad's family and close associates (Ahl al-Bayt), while Sunnis do not consider family lineage in evaluating hadith and sunnah narrated by any of twelve thousand companions of Muhammad. Well-known, widely accepted hadith make up the narrow inner layer, with a hadith becoming less reliable and accepted with each layer stretching outward.[14]. These reports are considered the most authoritative as they pass through so many different routes that collusion between all of the transmitters becomes an impossibility. "[91] "The intended meaning of 'other sciences' here are those pertaining to religion," explains Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, "Quranic exegesis, hadith, and jurisprudence. Hadith have been called "the backbone" of Islamic civilization,[5] and within that religion the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran[6] (which Muslims hold to be the word of God revealed to his messenger Muhammad). – L’Istiwa d’Allâh sur Son Trône – Les paroles authentiques des grands savants de l’Islam [10][Note 2], Ḥadīth is the Arabic word for things like speech, report, account, narrative. [22], According to Muhammad Shafi, Hadith whose isnad has been scrutinized then have their text or matn examined for, However, Joseph Schacht states that the "whole technical criticism of traditions ... is mainly based on criticism of isnads", which he (and others) believe to be ineffective in eliminating fraudulent hadith.[98]. Allah or Jesus? (1/4) Au nom d'Allah, le Tout Miséricordieux, le Très Miséricordieux. Pourquoi adopter la même croyance que Pharaon qui pensait qu’en fabricant une tour et en montant tout en haut il se rapprocherait d’Allâh? [18] In its classic form a hadith has two parts—the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report (the isnad), and the main text of the report (the matn). Ou est allah exposition de la croyance authentique 1. http ... « Le Tout Miséricordieux me maria depuis le dessus de Son Trône » Ce hadith est rapporté par Al-Boukhârî. Scriptural authority for hadith comes from the Quran which enjoins Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments (in verses such as 24:54, 33:21). The need hadith has of its science is apparent. ⇒ La parole : « Apprenez vos généalogies de quoi vous permettre d’entretenir vos liens de parenté » Est-elle un hadith authentique ou faible ? Où est Allâh. Coulson.[101]. Allah Est Arabe Ou Le Musulman Est Dieu. C’est ce jour-ci où Adam fut créé, où il est entré au Paradis et où il y a été expulsé. Shi'a Muslims seldom if ever use the six major hadith collections followed by the Sunni, as they do not trust many of the Sunni narrators and transmitters. "[90] Hassan al-Askari, a descendant of Muhammad, gave support to this narration, stating "Whoever he had taken out in the worldly life from the darkness of ignorance can hold to his light to be taken out of the darkness of the plain of resurrection to the garden (paradise). [66][67], Uthman's labours were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of aggrieved soldiers, in 656. Much of early Islamic history available today is also based on the hadith, although it has been challenged for its lack of basis in primary source material and the internal contradictions of the secondary material available. Ibn al-Salah, a hadith specialist, described the relationship between hadith and other aspect of the religion by saying: "It is the science most pervasive in respect to the other sciences in their various branches, in particular to jurisprudence being the most important of them. [22], Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah.[33]. [22] Some schools of Hadith methodology apply as many as sixteen separate tests. Hadith Kisa. » Le Très Haut n’a ni égal, ni semblable, ni pareil, ni équivalent ; Car le Très Haut transcende toute ressemblance avec les créatures. L’Islam est la religion avec laquelle Allah a envoyé Muhammad (Sala Allah ou ‘alaïhi oua Salam) : Allah a parachevé les messages antécédents avec l’avènement de l’Islam, et complété Sa religion pour Ses serviteurs et les a comblés de Son bienfait en agréant l'Islam, n'acceptant ainsi de … If, say, ten companions record a text reporting a single incident in the life of Muhammad, hadith scholars can count this as ten hadiths. He (Al-Baqir) said, "Oh Jabir, had we spoken to you from our opinions and desires, we would be counted among those who are destroyed. Quand comprendront-ils enfin que c’est par la piété qu’on se rapproche d’Allâh et que la seule direction qui permette d’atteindre Allâh est de suivre le droit chemin, as-Seerat al-Mustaqeem? Parmi elles : 1/ on a rapporté qu’un bédouin demanda : « O Envoyé d’Allâh ! Whatever agrees with the book of Allah you must take it and whatever disagrees you must leave it alone. "[90]:10 Al-Baqir also emphasized the selfless devotion of Ahl al-Bayt to preserving the traditions of Muhammad through his conversation with Jabir ibn Abd Allah, an old companion of Muhammad. Le Prophète ﷺ a dit : « Le moment où le serviteur est le plus proche de Son Seigneur est lorsqu’il se trouve en prosternation. The hadith are at the root of why there is no single fiqh system, but rather a collection of parallel systems within Islam. To do this, they used a number of techniques which Muslims now call the science of hadith.[81]. Hadith were not written down by Muhammad's followers immediately after his death but many generations later when they were collected, collated and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. ou est Allah part 4: ... , Abou Ismâ'îl Al-Ansâri Al-Harawi était un imam, un jurisconsulte hanbalite, un grand savant du Hadith, un hâfidh, un exégète (moufasir), un exemple, un modèle, un soufi et un shaykh de l'Islam. to preach in a plain way)" [an-Noor 24:54], "We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah's Leave" [an-Nisa’ 4:64]. Bonjour , dans certains moments de votre vie quand vous etes au plus bas que vous souffrez et que personne n'est la pour vous et que vous invoquez Allah mais vous ne voyez pas de signes de lui . What I mean by best hadith is that, the narration starts with the word best or has advice in it about being the best. In fact one agreed upon hadith warned that, "There will be forgers, liars who will bring you hadiths which neither you nor your forefathers have heard, Beware of them. Details of prescribed movements and words of the prayer (known as rakat's) and how many times they are to be performed, are found in hadith. [citation needed], Faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters—some of them flatly contradicting each other—Islamic scholars of the Abbasid sought to authenticate hadith. Avant même de répondre, sachez que cette question ne devrait pas être posée (si l’intention est d’en faire un point de ‘Aqida). While Malik ibn Anas had attributed just 1720 statements or deeds to the Muhammad, it was no longer unusual to find people who had collected a hundred times that number of hadith. The reason for the unlawfulness of pictorial representation is that it imitates the creative act of Allah Most High, as is indicated by the hadith related by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim that A’isha (Allah be well pleased with her) said, “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) returned from a trip, and I had draped a cloth with picture on it over a small closet. Therefore, every individual hadith in a specific collection must be investigated separately to determine its authenticity. La crainte d'Allah est ici », et il dit ceci en montrant trois fois son cœur, puis il ajouta : « Le pire de l' iniquité est de mépriser son frère musulman. Que répondre à cette question ? Quand délaisseront-ils les avis marginaux et la manipulations des paroles des Compagnons? came gradually. The Qur'an is the holy book for Muslims, revealed in stages to the Prophet Muhammad over 23 years.. … » (4) Allah le Majestueux dit encore (traduction rapprochée) : « Etes-vous à l'abri, que Celui qui est au ciel vous enfouisse sous terre et voici qu'elle tremble * Ou êtes-vous à l'abri que Celui qui est au ciel envoie contre vous un ouragan de pierres ? 241 d. vind-ik-leuks. Ensuite, il n’est pas dit qu’ils contemplent ou méditent sur Allâh. [22], Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but that is not found in the Quran. The best-known hadith collections are The Four Books, which were compiled by three authors who are known as the 'Three Muhammads'. comment. Numéro du Hadith dans le Sahîh de Muslim [Arabe uniquement]: 822 D'après `A'icha (qu'Allah soit satisfait d'elle), l'Envoyé d'Allah dit, lors de sa maladie à la suite de laquelle il succomba : "Qu'Allah maudisse les juifs et les chrétiens qui ont pris les tombes de leurs prophètes pour oratoires". 9 talking about this. Tottoli, Roberto, "Hadith", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols. Le Hadith est l'enregistrement des préceptes du Prophète Mahomet, les actions et la vie, qui constituent sa Sunna, ou par exemple. 239540", "The Authenticity of Prophetic Ḥadîth: A Pseudo-Problem", Mirqat al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al-masabih, Muqaddimah ibn al-Salah fi 'Ulum al-Hadith, List of newspapers that reprinted the cartoons, Islamist demonstration outside Danish Embassy in London in 2006, Manifesto: Together Facing the New Totalitarianism, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hadith&oldid=995708411, Articles with dead external links from March 2020, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2015, Articles needing additional references from April 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad (SAW)) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it), and fear Allah. "[90], Regarding the importance of maintaining accuracy in recording hadith, it has been documented that Muhammad al-Baqir, the great grandson of Muhammad, has said that "Holding back in a doubtful issue is better than entering destruction. Allah vous rétribue plutôt en fonction de la sincérité et véracité de votre cœur mais aussi selon les … No sources survive directly from this period so we are dependent on what later writers tell us about this period. Your not narrating a Hadith is better than you narrating a Hadith in which you have not studied thoroughly. Imam an-Nawawi's 40 Hadith ... On the authority of Abu Abbas Abdullah bin Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: One day I was behind the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) [riding on the same mount] and he said, “O young man, I shall teach you some words [of advice]: Be mindful of Allah and Allah will protect you. The science of hadith became the most pervasive due to the need displayed by each of these three sciences. The Future of Muslim Civilisation by Ziauddin Sardar, 1979, page 26. - Encyclopédie des paroles prophétiques traduites Its Arabic plural is aḥādīth (أحاديث [ʔæħæːˈdiːθ]). In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth (حديث IPA: [ħæˈdiːθ]) means "report", "account", or "narrative". [34], Some sources (Khaled Abou El Fadl) limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith.[35]. Comment Dieu pourrait être contenu ou comparé à une de Ses créatures!!! Collections of hadith sometimes mix those of Muhammad with the reports of others. [24][25] In Shia Islam, hadīth are the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of Muhammad and his family the Ahl al-Bayt (The Twelve Imams and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah). Introduction The Qur'an A copy of the Qur'an ©. [61][non-primary source needed], In the Shia school of thought, there are two fundamental viewpoints of hadith: The Usuli view and the Akhbari view. Il a la même racine étymologique que « El » ou « Elohim[1] » en hébreu, « Elah » en araméen – la langue de Jésus – ou encore « Alâhâ » en syriaque. ♥ «Seigneur ! Reports not meeting this standard are known as aahad, and are of several different types. Hadith: « Garder les frontières dans le sentier d’Allah pendant un jour, est meilleur que le monde d'ici-bas et ce qui s’y trouve. ", "Shaikh Shah Waliullahs Dehlawi's (1176H) Inclination in Fiqh and his Hanafiyyah – al-Allamah Shaikh Muhammad Ismaeel Salafi (1378H)", Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam: A Reconsideration of the Sources, with Special Reference to the Divine Saying or Hadith Qudsi, "The HADITH - How it was Collected and Compiled", "The science of hadith is based on reason and shar'i guidelines. Islamic literary classifications similar to hadith (but not sunna) are maghazi and sira. C’est ce jour-ci où Adam fut créé, où il est entré au Paradis et où il y a été expulsé. [97], Hadith on matters of importance needed to come through a number of independent chains,[95] this was known as the scale of transmission.

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